Marvin's Blog【程式人生】

Ability will never catch up with the demand for it

20 Jul 2020

Werkzeug文档笔记【一】

Werkzeug是一个Python WSGI接口标准的工具库。Flask就是基于Werkzeug的。

Werkzeug Tutorial¶

这个教程使用Werkzeug、Redis以及Jinja2来搭建一个短域名服务shortly。

不使用Werkzeug的WSGI App,打印"Hello, World“:

def application(environ, start_response):
    start_response('200 OK', [('Content-Type', 'text/plain')])
    return ['Hello World!']

使用werkzeug的request和response包装器

from werkzeug.wrappers import Request, Response

def application(environ, start_response):
    request = Request(environ)
    text = 'Hello %s!' % request.args.get('name', 'World')
    response = Response(text, mimetype='text/plain')
    return response(environ, start_response)

创建一个static目录放置静态文件,以及一个templates目录放置模板文件:

/shortly
    /static
    /templates

示例代码:

import os
import redis
import urlparse
from werkzeug.wrappers import Request, Response
from werkzeug.routing import Map, Rule
from werkzeug.exceptions import HTTPException, NotFound
from werkzeug.middleware.shared_data import SharedDataMiddleware
from werkzeug.utils import redirect
from jinja2 import Environment, FileSystemLoader

class Shortly(object):

    def __init__(self, config):
        self.redis = redis.Redis(config['redis_host'], config['redis_port'])

    def dispatch_request(self, request):
        return Response('Hello World!')

    def wsgi_app(self, environ, start_response):
        request = Request(environ)
        response = self.dispatch_request(request)
        return response(environ, start_response)

    def __call__(self, environ, start_response):
        return self.wsgi_app(environ, start_response)


def create_app(redis_host='localhost', redis_port=6379, with_static=True):
    app = Shortly({
        'redis_host':       redis_host,
        'redis_port':       redis_port
    })
    if with_static:
        app.wsgi_app = SharedDataMiddleware(app.wsgi_app, {
            '/static':  os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), 'static')
        })
    return app

if __name__ == '__main__':
    from werkzeug.serving import run_simple
    app = create_app()
    run_simple('127.0.0.1', 5000, app, use_debugger=True, use_reloader=True)

修改示例,加入模板相关代码:

def __init__(self, config):
    self.redis = redis.Redis(config['redis_host'], config['redis_port'])
    template_path = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), 'templates')
    self.jinja_env = Environment(loader=FileSystemLoader(template_path),
                                 autoescape=True)

def render_template(self, template_name, **context):
    t = self.jinja_env.get_template(template_name)
    return Response(t.render(context), mimetype='text/html')

Werkzeug提供了URL路由映射:

self.url_map = Map([
    Rule('/', endpoint='new_url'),
    Rule('/<short_id>', endpoint='follow_short_link'),
    Rule('/<short_id>+', endpoint='short_link_details')
])

如何将endpoint映射到具体的执行函数,需要自己定义:

def dispatch_request(self, request):
    adapter = self.url_map.bind_to_environ(request.environ)
    try:
        endpoint, values = adapter.match()
        return getattr(self, 'on_' + endpoint)(request, **values)
    except HTTPException, e:
        return e

当访问http://localhost:5000/foo的时候,adapter.match()会返回:

endpoint = 'follow_short_link'
values = {'short_id': u'foo'}

如果匹配失败,会返回HTTPException异常NotFound,这本身也是一个WSGI应用。

new_url端点映射到on_new_url函数:

def on_new_url(self, request):
    error = None
    url = ''
    if request.method == 'POST':
        url = request.form['url']
        if not is_valid_url(url):
            error = 'Please enter a valid URL'
        else:
            short_id = self.insert_url(url)
            return redirect('/%s+' % short_id)
    return self.render_template('new_url.html', error=error, url=url)

将短网址映射到真实网址:

def on_follow_short_link(self, request, short_id):
    link_target = self.redis.get('url-target:' + short_id)
    if link_target is None:
        raise NotFound()
    self.redis.incr('click-count:' + short_id)
    return redirect(link_target)

显示短网址的详细信息:

def on_short_link_details(self, request, short_id):
    link_target = self.redis.get('url-target:' + short_id)
    if link_target is None:
        raise NotFound()
    click_count = int(self.redis.get('click-count:' + short_id) or 0)
    return self.render_template('short_link_details.html',
        link_target=link_target,
        short_id=short_id,
        click_count=click_count
    )

剩下的就是一些模板与样式相关的文件了。

(本篇完)

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